It has also been called the "Poor Barons' Rebellion". By now Calvinist mobs had overrun much of central Scotland, destroying monasteries and Catholic churches as they went. Monck took Stirling on 14 August and Dundee on 1 September. LIST OF WARS. One of the most emotionally powerful of all World War II documentaries. This period was also known for the Inquisition. The Wild Beggars pillaged churches and monasteries, cutting off the noses and ears of priests and monks. In 1524, King Christian II converted to Lutheranism and encouraged Lutheran preachers to enter Denmark despite the opposition of the Danish diet of 1524. What about the First World War, not to mention the other theatres of the 1939-45 conflict? Support from England finally arrived and by the end of March, a significant English army joined the Scottish Protestant forces. King Charles I decided to send an expeditionary force to relieve the French Huguenots whom Royal French forces held besieged in La Rochelle. Only the two Spanish members had the power to vote, with Alva personally retaining the right of final decision on any case that interested him. On 12 May 1588, a popular uprising raised barricades on the streets of Paris, and Henry III fled the city. [30] It took more than four months but the besiegers finally breached the wall and entered the city at night. However, the massacre has significance mainly as a symbol of the Irish perception of Cromwellian cruelty, as far more people died in the subsequent guerrilla warfare and scorched-earth fighting in the country than at infamous massacres such as Drogheda and Wexford. Henry recovered in 1455, reestablishing the authority of Margaret’s party. It’s simplistic but provides a useful framework. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In keeping with Salic Law, he named Henry as his heir. Their captives were often given a choice between Calvinism and death. The war marked a continuation of the France-Habsburg rivalry for pre-eminence in Europe, which led later to direct war between France and Spain. By 1617 Germany was bitterly divided, and it was clear that Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, would die without an heir. [23] They spread their revolutionary religious and political doctrines into the countryside of Bohemia, Southern Germany, and Switzerland. The peace finally ended in the Schmalkaldic War (German: Schmalkaldischer Krieg), a brief conflict between 1546 and 1547 between the forces of Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League. 5 Oct. 1999 High Hopes. On March 1, however, a faction of the Guise family's retainers attacked an illegal Calvinist service in Wassy-sur-Blaise in Champagne. One morning, 1,500 were seized in their sleep and sent to jail. This war caused the death of an estimated 13.5 million people, almost 10% of the population—12 million civilians and 1.5 million soldiers. It begins with the story of Operation Barbarossa, and Germany's subsequent war against the Soviet Union. After the Convention of Estates deposed the Catholic king James VII on 11 April 1689, they offered the royal title to William and his wife Mary (the Protestant daughter of James), which they accepted on 11 May 1689. Coligny and his troops retreated to the south-west and regrouped with Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, and in spring of 1570 they pillaged Toulouse, cut a path through the south of France and went up the Rhone valley to La Charité-sur-Loire. In the pattern of Calvinist riots in France and the Netherlands, the mob then attacked two friaries in the town, looting their gold and silver and smashing images. Although a Roman Catholic, she was prepared to deal favourably with the Huguenot House of Bourbon. See the new stats page for a summary of casualty data and nation-based stats. Alva responded to his financial bind by imposing a new series of taxes. Martin Luther rejected the demands of the insurgents and upheld the right of Germany's rulers to suppress the uprisings,[24] setting out his views in his polemic Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants. He recaptured Deventer, Groningen, Nijmegen and Zutphen. What followed was a series of mutual confiscation of property as England and Spain played international cat-and-mouse. The period of the French Wars of Religion effectively removed France's influence as a major European power, allowing the Catholic forces in the Holy Roman Empire to regroup and recover. Charles V spoke the language; Philip II did not. The Austrian House of Habsburg, who remained Catholic, was a major European power in its own right, ruling over some eight million subjects in present-day Germany, Austria, Bohemia and Hungary. [3] Scholars have pointed out that some European wars of this period were not caused by disputes occasioned by the Reformation, such as the Italian Wars (1494–1559, only involving Catholics)[note 1] and the Northern Seven Years' War (1563–1570, only involving Lutherans). As the former Member of Parliament Admiral Robert Blake blockaded Prince Rupert's fleet in Kinsale, Oliver Cromwell could land at Dublin on 15 August 1649 with an army to quell the Royalist alliance in Ireland. He proceeded to Dundee where a large number of Protestant sympathisers and noblemen had gathered. international rather than domestic). The New Model Army advanced towards Perth, which allowed Charles, at the head of the Scottish army, to move south into England. [2][4] The Peace of Westphalia (1648) broadly resolved the conflicts by recognising three separate Christian traditions in the Holy Roman Empire: Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism. Oliver Cromwell's conduct in this battle proved decisive, and demonstrated his leadership potential. Catherine and Charles decided this time to ally themselves with the House of Guise. Wars of the Roses, (1455–85), in English history, the series of dynastic civil wars whose violence and civil strife preceded the strong government of the Tudors. With the help of the Scots, Parliament won at Marston Moor (2 July 1644), gaining York and much of the north of England. The Cold War is a war that occurred in the 22nd century, starting in October 2139 and ending sometime during or after 2147. They unhesitatingly killed those who clung to the old faith, sometimes after incredible tortures. S1, Ep1. More than 170 million people were killed by governments with ten million being killed in World War I and fifty million killed in World War II. The Elector of Saxony, the Landgrave of Hesse, and other North German princes not only protected Luther from retaliation from the edict of outlawry issued by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, but also used state power to enforce the establishment of Lutheran worship in their lands, in what is called the Magisterial Reformation. This was considered the last and most costly victory of Alva's regime. The sudden death of Mary of Guise in Edinburgh Castle on 10 June 1560 paved the way for the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh, and the withdrawal of French and English troops from Scotland, leaving the Scottish Calvinists in control on the ground. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? According to the Peace of Aarau of 11 August 1712 and the Peace of Baden of 16 June 1718, the war ended with the end of Catholic hegemony. Charles was executed in 1649, and the monarchy was not restored until 1660. [30] Farnese repeopled it with Walloon Catholics. Beginning as a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a general war involving much of Europe, for reasons not necessarily related to religion. However, both kings firmly repressed attempts to spread Lutheran ideas within France. One Protestant historian wrote: On more than one occasion men were seen hanging their own brothers, who had been taken prisoners in the enemy rank. The council soon became their battleground. Military intervention by external powers such as Denmark and Sweden on the Protestant side increased the duration of the war and the extent of its devastation. [26] Sweden and Finland lost, by one calculation, 110,000 dead from all causes. A new phase of the civil war began in 1459 when York, goaded by the queen’s undisguised preparations to attack him, rebelled for the last time. The first four of these seals unleash the four Horsemen, instruments of Death, War, Plague, and Famine. In 1567, Mary was captured by another rebellious force at the Battle of Carberry Hill and imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle, where she was forced to abdicate the Scottish throne in favour of her one-year-old son James. Instead of selecting a successor trained in handling diplomacy, Philip sent the Duke of Alva to crush the malcontents. 1. In 1532 the Emperor, pressed by external troubles, stepped back from confrontation, offering the "Peace of Nuremberg", which suspended all action against the Protestant states pending a General Council of the Church. In 1656, tensions between Protestants and Catholics re-emerged and led to the outbreak of the First War of Villmergen. The first major instances of systematic Protestant destruction of images and statues in Catholic churches occurred in Rouen and La Rochelle in 1560. A small force of Aegeri succeeded in routing the camp, and the demoralized Zürich force had to retreat, forcing the Protestants to agree to a peace treaty to their disadvantage. And it wasn't just the soldiers who suffered. There existed no true unity between Catholics, Calvinists, and Protestants against Alva. Cromwell's suppression of the Royalists in Ireland during 1649 still has a strong resonance for many Irish people. France, although always ruled by a Catholic monarch, had played a major part in supporting the Protestants in Germany and the Netherlands against their dynastic rivals, the Habsburgs. Philip gave full power to Alva in 1567. General Information . In Northern Germany, Luther adopted the tactic of gaining the support of the local princes and city elites in his struggle to take over and re-establish the church along Lutheran lines. Don Fadrique's troops indiscriminately sacked homes, monasteries and churches. Edward IV, portrait by an unknown artist; in the National Portrait Gallery, London. The conflicts began with the minor Knights' Revolt (1522), followed by the larger German Peasants' War (1524–1525) in the Holy Roman Empire. Gathering forces in northern England, the Lancastrians surprised and killed York at Wakefield in December and then marched south toward London, defeating Warwick on the way at the Second Battle of St. Albans (February 17, 1461). [1][8][9][10] In 1517, Martin Luther's Ninety-five Theses took only two months to spread throughout Europe with the help of the printing press, overwhelming the abilities of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the papacy to contain it. Philip II mishandled his responsibility through a series of bungled diplomatic maneuvers. The Dissolution of the Monasteries, which began in 1536, provoked a violent northern Catholic rebellion in the Pilgrimage of Grace, which was eventually put down with much bloodshed. Then Edward, with the remainder of Warwick’s forces, pursued Margaret north to Towton. During the war, Germany's population was reduced by 30% on average. While War of the Century ("WOTC") is limited in scope to "just" the German v. Russian fronts, it one of the best documentaries ever produced in regards to the mentality of World War II. Lutheranism, from its inception at Wittenberg in 1517, found a ready reception in Germany, as well as German-speaking parts of Hussite Bohemia (where the Hussite Wars took place from 1419 to 1434, and Hussites remained a majority of the population until the 1620 Battle of White Mountain). Archduke Albert and Isabel of Austria were given sovereign rights in the Netherlands forming a truce in 1609 that gave the Dutch a brief respite from war. This paper attempts an examination of the 19th century civil wars in Yoruba land, focusing on some selected north-eastern Yoruba towns. 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