Polymerization is of two types, condensation polymerization and addition polymerization. Condensation Polymerization S Ramakrishnan S Ramakrishnan is a professor in the Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry at the Indian Institute of Science. Condensation polymers form more slowly than addition polymers, often requiring heat, and they are generally lower in molecular weight. In condensation polymerization, the formation of the polymer occurs when there is a loss of some small molecules as byproducts through the reaction where molecules are joined together. 1 In the case of a condensation reaction, two monomers combine with the loss of a small molecule, usually an alcohol, a water or an acid molecule, whereas an addition reaction involves only the rearrangement of the electrons of a double bond to form a single bond with another molecule. The initiation mechanism is explained by an autoxidation to an active ketohydroperoxide form. Bakelund performed this synthesis at the beginning of the twentieth century, producing the first synthetic polymer. However, in condensation polymerisation, the monomers do not need a C=C double bond … The polymers usually formed by this mechanism have two functional groups, where functionality is defined as the average number of reacting groups per reacting molecule. In these cases the reactor must supply heat in order to maintain a practical reaction rate. In condensation polymerization, molecules of monomer and/or lower molecular weight polymers chemically combine, producing longer chains that are much higher in molecular weight. The diamine is present in excess to react with the hydrogen chloride that is eliminated. Polyamide and proteins are examples of condensation polymers. Get more information in the following paragraphs. The kinetic treatment of condensation polymerization focuses on the step‐growth mechanism, with a separate section devoted to cases of living polycondensation. In chemistry of industrial polymers: Industrial polymerization methods. Condensation polymerization, on the other hand, is endothermic—that is, the reaction requires an input of heat from an external source. The byproducts formed may be water or hydrogen chloride. Condensation Polymerization. Polyester and nylon are some of the most common examples of this type. The second condensation polymerization you will carry out is a reaction between phenol and formaldehyde to produce a polymer known as Bakelite (see mechanism at the top of the next page). Recent advances in controlled polymerization techniques have offered the possibility to change the growth mechanism to a “living” polymerization in both cases of polymerization. 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